There have been hundreds of journal articles and books written about the beliefs and causes of bullying such as family factors, school dynamics, neighborhood dynamics, demographics, socioeconomic background and poor peer relations to name a few. Etiological perspectives within the past two decades have progressed from a focus on aggression as an inborn human characteristic to a view that aggression, to some degree, is a reflection of our surroundings and that the external environment hold an important key to the acquisition and maintenance of aggression (Sweater, Song, Cary, Eagle, Mickelson, 2001). Based on empirical literature the ideology of bullying in this report will focus on parental dynamics of child rearing and role modeling, which have been targeted as incubation grounds for childhood development of antisocial (bullying) and victim behavior.

Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory states that parental violence creates aggressive children through role modeling; teaching children negative problem-solving techniques. This authoritarian parenting style lacks warmth and affection. Rules are strict and designed to keep order; obedience is paramount and choices are not an option. On the flip-side, authoritative parenting creates emotionally healthy children, establishing positive problem solving techniques using non-aggressive actions. Parents provide opportunities of their child to make their own choices in a warm and affectionate environment. This method of parenting allows children develop self-efficacy, confidence, and self-esteem.

Reasonable independence and exploration are designed around parental monitoring and guidance  (Corey, 2001/2008). Applying locus of control to parenting skills is one method of explaining Bandura’s Social Learning Theory relative to negative and positive role models and the development of child behavior.