The journal article Psycho-social Correlates in Bullying and Victimization: The Relationship between Depression, Anxiety, and Bully/Victim Status (Swearer, Song, Cary, et al., 2001) states that:
Previous studies have used various definitions of bullying. One of the most common definitions of bullying is: “A person is being bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons” (Olweus, 1993, p. 9). Other researchers have delineated three aspects of bullying:
“Imbalance of strength (whether physical or psychological), repeated negative action against an individual, and a deliberate intention to hurt the other where the aggression is largely unprovoked”‘ (Slee, 1995. p. 57). Hoover, Oliver, and Hazler (1992) define bullying as “the physical or psychological abuse of an individual by one or a group of students” (p. 76). Bullying may take the form of direct and open attacks on the victim, or social isolation and intentional exclusion from a group (Olweus, 1994). Thus, bullying can manifest in both verbal and physical behaviors (Bosworth, Espelage, & Simon, 1999).
According to Dan Olweus (1993), the dynamics of bullies and those that arc bullied can be divided into the following categories: (1 ) Bullies, (2) Passive Bullies (followers), (3) Passive/submissive victims, and (4) Provocative victims.
These four categories will be explored further in the following analysis that is comprised mainly of research completed by Dan Olweus spanning from the early I 970’s to the early 1990’s) in the three largest cities of Norway: Oslo, Bergen, and Trondheim.